In the life of a lot of things, items are made of glass. So, do you know the glass? Know how the glass is made? Know how the glass production process is like?
First: raw materials and preparation
The main raw materials are quartz sand (sio2), soda ash (Na2CO3), calcite (CaO), limestone (CaCO3), boron compound (B2O3) and barium carbonate (BaCO3). Auxiliary raw materials: orange, coloring agent, opacity. Help. In the formula, the manufacturers to be based on specific products, make the appropriate adjustments. In the raw materials by adding the appropriate zinc oxide can increase the toughness of the product, add the right amount of colored material in the raw materials may make the product coloring, such as adding copper oxide, the product was green or blue: adding oxygen cobalt coloring; Red, adding the amount of color to affect the depth. In the ingredients generally allow 20% of the clean recovery materials, recycled materials should not be too much, otherwise the product prone to granular, protruding. Bubbles and so on. In the ingredients into the furnace before, all the materials must be mixed together, stir evenly.
Second point: melt
The mixture is added to the furnace, the high temperature melting, the furnace temperature according to different products may be, generally in 1200-1600 degrees, the fuel has heavy oil. Electricity and so on. Furnaces are generally crucible and pool kiln two, the general crucible only one mouth, feed and discharge are in this mouth, the kiln may be expected to separate feed and discharge (depending on the size of the factory), this is only one The mouth of the furnace often in the evening feeding, and then sealed, the general new material to be melting for 8 hours before use, so the feed can not be carried out at any time, often wait until the material has been used up, so the general a cylinder The material can be used for one day, about 600-900 liters.
The third point: glass molding
The general molding method has blown (machine blowing, artificial blowing), pressing, centrifugal rotation, firing (auxiliary effect). Glass molds generally use pig iron castings. The quality of the mold quality will also affect the quality of the product, because some iron has sand, then the product is rough, there are convex, at high temperatures, easy to remove the iron and stained on the product. The general mold has a few holes, vent holes rarely, generally does not affect the molding effect of the product, the exhaust effect of a good mold, the product pattern, the letter is more clear, mold the size of the joint will also affect the product The severity of the corner, the mold must be preheated before use, otherwise just output of the product easily broken. The molten material into the mold with automatic feeding and manual operation of two automatic feeding, each product before the production of a good amount of feed, and manual operation is entirely dependent on the experience of workers, so the manual operation, the amount of how much Very important, too much easy to make too thick. Too little, it may be incomplete product, due to manual cutting control problems, prone to avoid the product side of the thickness and the product severity and other issues. Blowing products made by air pressure, so the size of the pressure with a great relationship, the pressure is too large, may appear thin bottom, mouth thick, the pressure is too small, the mouth may be too thin or simply not blow, mouth But missing. The general blown products are bottles, cans. The pressing is done by pressing the inner mold into the outer mold and pressing the frit. The gap between the two models affect the thickness of the product, and the internal mold is controlled by the air pressure, so the pressure is too large may reduce the gap between the two molds, so that the bottom of the product thin: If the pressure is too small, the opposite. Generally straight cups are used to suppress, but if the product is relatively high and the requirements of thinner, the general use of blowing, and this product is the thinnest in the middle, so the central easy to break. Centrifugal rotation, with the mold installed in the motor, through a certain speed of the mold to throw off the material molding. Electric speed is too small, may not be thrown away, leaving the product is not complete, the speed is too large, may be thrown out of the material or the whole rejection to the top, so that the top of the thick, bottom thin, generally use this method. After the product out of the mold need to use a clamp out, if the pliers rust, it may make the product stained with rust classes, can not be cleared, it must ensure that the clamp clean and rust, usually with glass of water to wipe, or use rust The clamp. The general product can be carried out at this time after the process - burning side, but some products can not be molded with a mold, and the need for re-welding, welding must be in the product just when the mold, and another part of the welding must be Just to pick out the melting of the material, so as to be welded, or easy to close or burst products.
The fourth point: burning side
Products just die, the general mouth is not smooth, but to use high temperature will be burning smooth, more use of fire.
The fifth point: faint fire
Products after the mold temperature is about 500-600 degrees high, if this natural cooling, it will explode, it is necessary to use faint fire equipment to slow down the temperature. Faint fire equipment is a top and both sides of the closed conveyor belt shape, usually 10 meters long, about 1 meter wide, a total of several different temperature zone, the initial temperature is generally the same as the temperature of the mold products, that is 500-600 degrees, And then gradually reduced, the end temperature is generally about 60 degrees, fade time should not be too short, otherwise the product easily burst, and the general product is not burst, but later or in the transport will blow up. 6, after the inspection into the post-processing, such as decals or fried sand and so on.